As we have reported earlier, In the middle of the standoff that India has with China, the Indian Air Force has pushed a proposal to the government for acquiring 33 new fighter aircraft, including 21 MiG-29s and 12 Su-30MKIs from Russia.
Russia will reportedly be able to deliver these aircraft within a period of a few months. The two fighter classes currently form the bulk of India’s fourth generation fleet, with over 250 Su-30MKI and over 100 MiG-29 fighters in service and several more on order, meaning that maintenance infrastructure and trained pilots are already available.
Both fourth-generation designs carry formidable sensors, are highly manoeuvrable, are well suited to combat at all altitudes, and are compatible with a wide range of advanced munition types.
The Indian Defence Ministry has repeatedly emphasized the importance of realizing plans to expand the Air Force’s fleet of combat aircraft from 32 squadrons to 42, and acquiring the MiG-29, in particular, has provided a low-cost means of moving towards this goal.
While the fighters are formidable, they are from a medium weight range rather than a heavy one like the Su-30, and thus consume less fuel and are much cheaper to operate. Russia is thought to have over 100 unassembled MiG-29 airframes in storage and hundreds more assembled airframes in reserve, and unassembled airframes can be built and enhanced to a modern standard in a relatively short period providing a very quick and cost-effective means to expand the fleet with a tried and tested fighter design.
India was the first foreign client for the MiG-29, which was designed to be able to go head to head with and outperform the F-16C Fighting Falcon and F-18C Hornet fighters in the U.S. Air Force and Navy.
The fighter’s presence in the Kargil War was considered sufficient to deter Pakistani F-16s from intervening in operations, with the MiGs deploying superior beyond visual range missiles and boasting multiple performance advantages.
Indian MiG-29s have since been upgraded to the MiG-29UPG standard, which is considered one of the most capable variants of the aircraft in the world with avionics, sensors and electronic warfare systems all far superior to those of the original design.
Despite its advanced capabilities, however, the MiG-29 is unlikely to be able to counter the new generation of elite fighter jets deployed by the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Air Force – which include the J-10C ‘4++ generation’ lightweight platform and the J-16 and J-20 next-generation heavyweight fighters.
The J-10C, for example, benefits from a high composite radar cross-section reducing airframe, stealth coatings, integration of a powerful AESA radar, and more modern WS-10B thrust-vectoring engines. Its PL-15 missiles have 2-3 times the range of those deployed by the MiG-29 and are guided by active rather than passive radars making them far more difficult to jam and evade. The discrepancy in capabilities is only more acute for heavier Chinese fighter classes like the J-16, which has been deployed under China’s Western Theatre Command near the Indian border.
While the MiG-29UPG is a formidable fighter, and can be considered more than a match for older Chinese fighter designs from the 2000s such as the J-10A and J-7G, deploying it near the Chinese border will not be enough to ensure a qualitative advantage or even parity against China’s newer aircraft. This being said, more MiG-29s could be deployed near the Pakistani border where they still enjoy a comfortable edge over Pakistan’s much lighter aircraft such as the JF-17 Bl. 2 and F-16C. This in turn could free up more elite fighter units to deploy to the northern border.
The Su-30MKI, as India’s most capable aircraft, has significant advantages over the MiG-29 including superior manoeuvrability, newer electronics, more powerful sensors, higher endurance, and access to much longer-ranged missiles for air to ground, anti-shipping and air to air engagements. This being said, it too may not be the ideal aircraft to counter China’s new generation of fighters.
Unlike other similar derivatives of the same Flanker airframe design such as the Su-35 and J-16, the Su-30MKI has no stealth capabilities meaning it can be detected at a long-range. This among other factors gives modern Chinese fighters such as the J-16, which deploys the aforementioned PL-15 missiles and integrates a large and powerful AESA radar, significant advantages.
China also deploys J-20 stealth fighters which enjoy even greater advantages, and while these have yet to join the J-16 in deployment under the Western Theatre Command facing India mass production of the aircraft makes the possibility of such a deployment likely in the coming years.
For India to more effectively shift the balance of power in its favour, it will need to make more substantial enhancements to the quality of its frontline fighter units. This will take more time, effort and expense than expanding the MiG-29 and Su-30 fleets, but could in the long term prove more cost effective.
The most likely change in the near term, one in which the Air Force has shown considerable interest in pursuing, would be to purchase MiG-35 ‘4++ generation’ medium fighters as a successor to the MiG-29. These jets could prove much more cost-effective than the MiG-29 in the long run, as they not only use the same maintenance infrastructure and require very similar pilot training making a transition simple but they also have a much lower operational cost.
While they may struggle against heavier Chinese platforms such as the J-20 and J-16, the fighters should provide parity with the PLA’s J-10C jets and can be acquired at a low cost. Russia has also offered to build the jets under license in India, which could lead to a similar scale of production as the Su-30MKI.
The MiG-35s integrate powerful AESA radars and are compatible with a range of new standoff weapons which will likely make them overall India’s most dangerous fighters in a strike role. Although they lack an AESA radar guided air to air missiles like the PL-15, their R-37M missiles are considerably faster and have a longer range than their Chinese counterparts.
Looking to more costly and higher end jets, the Indian Defence Ministry has continued to show interest in the Russian Su-57 heavyweight next generation fighter – although it intends to wait until after the aircraft has seen some years of service in the Russian fleet and possible performance issues are solved before making a purchase.
With the aircraft entering mass production in July 2019, the possibility of an Indian acquisition in the not-too-distant future remains likely. The Su-57 can provide India’s fleet with parity with China’s new generation of heavyweight fighters, benefitting from a radar cross-section reducing profile and large internal storage bays for up to ten air to air missiles.
The Su-57 is particularly outstanding in its strike capabilities and is the only stealth fighter designed to deploy hypersonic ballistic missiles allowing it to pose a threat to Chinese airfields across the Western Theatre. Its large and powerful AESA radar and unique cheek and rear-mounted sensors will place its situational awareness on a much higher level than existing Indian designs, while it’s very high endurance could reduce the need for large numbers of aircraft and allow the Air Force to instead rely on smaller numbers of more elite squadrons to cover more ground. With the aircraft designed as a successor to the Su-27 air superiority platform, it is expected that multiple upgrade packages and enhanced derivatives will be made available to improve the jet’s performance over the coming decades – meaning investments made in the aircraft can continue to pay off for many years to come.
Ultimately beyond further enhancements to the Su-30MKI, such as the possible integration of AL-41 engines and Irbis-E radars, India’s most viable option to seriously counter China in the air will be to look to next generation Russian designs to improve its fleet’s performance.
Certainly a better write-up on India’s plans to achieve parity with China in the near future on its northern theater. But what puzzles me is that if India really dreams of becoming a superpower of its own shouldn’t it also grow out of its tendency to continously depend on other major powers for its strategic needs at least. Or is it nuturing this dependence merely as a kickbacks opportunity for its top brass and elite classes ?
By the way, it is good info to share with public, but the writer forget to mention that SU58 and Mig 35 are 4.5 and 5 Gen fighter planes and btw where would you you get the pilots to fly them???
Always apachi training is being carried out from last one year to pilots both in USA and india and still they are being landed in emergency conditions in hoshiarpur paddy fields and pilot is still unskilled for this hi-tech product.
So for God sake, don’t buy overrated war machines, instead the training and skill part shall be enhanced in Indian airforce training part.
We already witnessed what happened on 27 feb, and how we lost 2 fighter planes, and same day 6 airforce men in the Mil helicopter and next day again one more fighter plane in Ragiisthan..
So don’t waste tax payers money and please first of all train our pilots properly and also depoliticize the forces..
Only 1 fighter plane. Believe in your country more than your fool neighbour. Moreover fighter planes crash more often. Even planes like F22 have crashed a lot of time. Not to mention current 5th generation fighter are not much war trained as a result even US is looking for more upgraded f15 and f18 rather than buying more F22 or f35. Moreover,Integrating a fifth gen fighter into a aerospace environment is way costly,and I don’t think India should opt for it now. Rather we should try to build our own 5th gen jets. Our main motive should be to get powerful SAM’s in order to counter jets.
Honestly i Think India already have a lot of military power, to give even more power is pollitically dangerous, specially to trust a Leader who have focused his country on a bad politic system, contamination politics, slavery for money, and violent & bloody story, to be honest i would stay fat from India until they got a more “close to God” politicians because i see them as a real bad influence. (Not all citizens, just in general)
The only reason India has order MiG 29 is because the airframes have already been built by Russia. All that needs to be done is get the engine, avionics and electricals taken care off. Hense these aircrafts can be provided to india in 12-18 months timeline. The second reason why the procurement makes sense is because we will procure these at very cheap rates with advanced and new air to air missiles.
It is an Indian miltary tactic to extract money from pockets of democratic government. Last year indian air force was involved in so called strikes on Pakistan lost their Mig 21 bison fighter and Su 30 Mki fighter. On that pretext they pushed government to place order of three squadrons of very expensive Rafael. And now again they involve themselves in skirmishes with Chinese troops at border and lost their 20 sildiers. Again now they ordered almost 3 squadrons of Mig and Sukhoi aircrafts. This is how IAF is going to reach target of 42 squadrons. Pat on their back
India opted for more purchase of Su30MKI because of its ability to carry Brahmos supersonic cruise missile. Currently, Su 30 MKI is the only aircraft, designed by India to carryout air to air strike with Brahmos. And its worth to note that currently China does not have any defence against Brahmos. Also, Su 30 MKI and MIG 29 are considered backbone of IAF. The pilots are well trained to operate these aircrafts.
Training the pilots become an important factor if India opts for Su 57 or MIG 35. Its worth to mention here that a well trained indian pilot shot down pakistani F16 with outdated MIG 21 bison.